岐阜は地歌舞伎日本一

Gifu is Japan's most active  Jikabuki region.

地歌舞伎とは
About Jikabuki.

 歌舞伎は、日本固有の演劇で、ユネスコの無形文化遺産に登録されています。江戸時代に始まった歌舞伎は、流行の最先端を行く奇抜な衣装や髪型、錦絵のような美しい舞台で人々を熱狂させました。

 そして、江戸や大阪から公演に来るプロの役者(旅役者)に憧れた地方の人々は、旅役者に芝居を習い、やがて自分たちで芝居小屋や神社の祭礼時に演じ、楽しむようになりました。土地の素人が演じる地芝居をこの地方の人々は地歌舞伎と呼び、江戸時代から伝えられてきた物語や振付、衣裳を大切に受け継いでいます。

 現在、全国最多の29の保存団体が活動する岐阜県は、地歌舞伎が日本一盛んで、神奈川県、兵庫県とならび「日本三大地歌舞伎」のひとつとされています。各地に残る古い芝居小屋などで、今も、江戸時代さながらに歌舞伎が演じられています。

 

そして2010年、大歌舞伎では見られなくなった演目や、特有の振り付けの継承に活発に取り組む東濃地方の各歌舞伎保存会の活動、芝居小屋が数多く保存・活用されている点が高く評価され、『東濃の地歌舞伎と芝居小屋』が、「岐阜の宝もの」に認定されました。

 

岐阜県 : 岐阜の宝ものプロジェクト

 

http://www.pref.gifu.lg.jp/kanko-bussan/shiru/gifuno-takaramono/

Kabuki is a form of theatrical art unique to Japan. Kabuki is a UNESCO registered Intangible Historical Heritage.  When the art of Kabuki started in the Edo period, its modern and eccentric costumes and hairdos and the gorgeous, picture-like stage sets fascinated many people.

People in rural parts of the nation, who were enthusiastic fans of Kabuki , learned the art of Kabuki from traveling acting troupes, and eventually started organizing and playing Kabuki performance themselves in their hometowns. Such amateur forms of Kabuki played in rural parts of Japan are called "Jikabuki", which still continues today in some regions. In Jikabuki programs, the original stories, costumes and dance routines from the Edo period have been passed down from one generation to the next.  

Gifu prefecture has 29 Jikabuki preservation organizations, which is more than any other prefecture in the nation. and is the nation's most active Jikabuki region. Gifu along with Kanagawa and Hyogo Prefectures makes up what is known as the "Big Three" jikabuki regions. Old shibai-goyas (playhouses) are preserved in various parts of the prefecture, where Jikabuki programs are still performed just like in olden times.

 

 

 In 2010, owing to the activities of various Gifu preservation societies, the successions of ji-kabuki choreographers they employ, the regular performance of plays no longer seen in professional kabuki, and the preservation and use of multiple historically significant play houses, "Tono Ji-kabuki and Shibai-goya" were recognized by Gifu Prefecture as Treasures of Gifu.

東濃地方の地歌舞伎の歴史
The History of ji-kabuki in the Tono region

江戸時代、東濃地方(岐阜県南東部)は街道の交差点で、人や物がさかんに往来するところでした。その往来とともに行き来する都市の芸能文化を取り入れ易い環境であったことが、地歌舞伎の根付くひとつの要因であったと考えられます。祭りの日に各地の神社の舞台で催されていた歌舞伎などの芸能は、やがて地域の人々によって演じられるようになり、その人々の熱狂ぶりは、幕府から禁止令が出されるほどでした。

 

当時の東濃地方は尾張藩の領地で、東濃の木材が尾張藩の収入源であったことや軍事的にも大変重要な街道である中山道が通っている要所であったこともあり、民衆の不満のはけ口として芝居の公演も黙認されていたといいます。そういった背景も、地歌舞伎が守られる要因の一つであったと考えられます。

 

 

During the Edo period (1603-1868), the Tono region (Southeast Gifu Prefecture) served as a highway intersection where people and goods frequently came and went. This environment, in which urban culture and popular city entertainments were easily exchanged, is thought to be a main factor in ji-kabuki's early development.

Kabuki performances held during matsuri festivals on various shrine stages soon came to be performed by local villagers, whose wild enthusiasm for kabuki led the shogunate to issue regulations banning its performance.

 

At this time, T?no belonged to the Owari Domain (feudal territory held by the Tokugawa clan), and between the source of income provided by Tono's lumber supply and the importance of Tono's strategic position on the militaristically important Nakasendo highway, ji-kabuki performances were tolerated as an outlet for the people's discontent. This background is believed to have been another main factor in the development of ji-kabuki.

日本の文化が凝縮されたお芝居
A theater art containing essence of Japanese culture

 多彩な色柄の着物やかつらなどの衣装、三味線やうたいといった音楽、木と紙と布で工夫を凝らした舞台美術など、歌舞伎には日本の文化が凝縮されています。

Colorfully patterned kimonos and wigs, shamisen music and singing, and skillfully designed and crafted stage sets made entirely of wood, paper and cloth are essential parts of Japanese culture still preserved in the Kabuki art. 

地歌舞伎の見せ場“見得みえ
"Mie" posing marks the climax of a Jikabuki play 

見得とは、感情の高まりなどを表現するために、演技の途中で一瞬ポーズをつくって静止する歌舞伎独自の演技です、見得に合わせて、「バタ、バタ、バッタリ」とツケ打ち(効果音)が入って、芝居は最高の見せ場となります。

Mie is a special form of performance characteristic of Kabuki, where the actor strikes a pose and remains stationary for a moment, for example to express a strong emotion.   Mie is enhanced with the "clatter-clatter" sound effect produced by the tsuke-uchi, to mark the climax of the play.

“おひねり”と“大向う”
“ Ohineri ” and “ Omuko ”

 役者が見得を切った瞬間に、客席から掛かる声を大向うと言います。プロの歌舞伎では一般の観客が声をかけることはできませんが、地歌舞伎なら大丈夫。また、かけ声に合わせて贔屓の役者に“おひねり”を撒くのも地歌舞伎ならではの楽しみ方です。

Calls of encouragement from the audience made in time with the "mie" posing are called "Omuko". In professional Kabuki, ordinary visitors are not allowed to make Omuko calls, but that is not the case in Jikabuki. Anybody can join the fun! Throwing "ohineri", or coins wrapped in paper, at the stage in time with Omuko calls is also a fun part of Jikabuki watching. 

立役と女形
“ Tachiyaku ” and “ Onnagata ”

 立役たちやくは男役、女形おんながたは女役で、プロの歌舞伎では両方とも男性が演じますが、地歌舞伎では男性が女性を女性が男性を演じることもしばしばです。

"Tachiyaku" and "onnagata" refer to male and female roles respectively which, in professional Kabuki, are both played by male actors in professional Kabuki. In Jikabuki, however, tachiyaku may very often be played by female actors and onnagata by male actors.


独創的な化粧と衣装
Original make-up and clothes

 歌舞伎独自の化粧法である隈取は、血管や筋肉を誇張したもので、その色や種類によって役柄や性格を表しています。

 歌舞伎ならではのきらびやかな衣装も見どころの一つで、役柄や身分を表す重要な演出アイテムです。

Kumadori, a special form of makeup worn by Kabuki actors, represent facial veins and muscles in an exaggerated manner. Certain colors and patterns of kumadori are associated with specific attributes of the characters being played. Colorful and flashy costumes are also an important element of Kabuki entertainment. Like kumadori, costumes represent specific attributes of the characters being played.


江戸時代にタイムスリップ
古い小屋で芝居を観る醍醐味
"Visit the Edo period in action! Watch Jikabuki performance in preserved shibai-goyas just like in olden times"

 地歌舞伎の盛んな岐阜県には、築100年を超える芝居小屋がいくつもあります。江戸・明治期の様式を残す小屋の中は、まるで時代劇のセットのよう。花道や回り舞台などの装置、役者のサインが残る楽屋など、昔にタイムスリップした気分になれます。

Gifu prefecture has a very active Jikabuki culture and contains a number of shibai goyas (playhouses) which are more than 100 years old. These shibai goyas retain the Edo and Meiji period architectural styles, which look just like period drama sets. Inside the shibai goya, theatrical equipment such as hanamichi (platform connecting the main stage and the back of the theater), revolving stage, and the dressing rooms where famous actors left their signatures, are very reminiscent of the old times.

幕間の楽しみ 弁当や郷土料理
Snacks and meals between acts - the local specialties.

 地歌舞伎鑑賞の大きな楽しみの一つが、幕間に食べる弁当や酒、菓子などです。それぞれの地域で手づくりの郷土料理や寿司、幕の内弁当、名物の菓子などが楽しめます。

Another important part of Jikabuki enjoyment is snacks, meals and sake enjoyed between acts. Local specialties of the respective towns, such as snacks, sweets, sushi and bento lunch, are something that you cannot miss!